Greece is the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, the Olympic Games, Western literature and historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, and Western drama, including both tragedy and comedy.

The Modern Greek state, which encompasses much of the historical core of Greek civilization, was established in 1830, following the Greek War of Independence from the Ottoman Empire. Greece is a founding member of the United Nations, has been a member of the European Union since 1981, joined the eurozone in 2001, and has been a member of NATO since 1952.